The General Office of the Municipal Party Committee and the General Office of the Municipal Government recently issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of the Technology System and Strengthening the Sourcing power of Technology Innovation Centers" (referred to as "25 Articles" of Shanghai Technology Reform), which caused widespread repercussions in the Shanghai science and technology community.
This document proposes six reform tasks, including promotion of various types of subject innovation, stimulating the vitality of science and technology innovation talents, promoting the transfer of scientific and technological achievements, reforming and optimizing scientific research management, integrating into global innovation networks, and promoting innovation culture. We will fully implement the central government's requirements for the deployment of science and technology system reform, further promote the development of the city's science and technology system, and accelerate the march to a globally influential science and technology innovation center.
The "25 Articles" of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform highlights three "emphasis": First, it reflects the comprehensive benchmarking and implements the three new major tasks assigned by the central government to Shanghai, benchmarking the highest international standards. Advanced experience, summarizing Shanghai's good practices in the past, re-examining, re-promoting, and breaking through the reform of Shanghai's science and technology system. The second is to reflect the combination of distance and nearness, not only based on the current situation, but also conscientiously grasp the implementation of the reform task, and focus on the long-term, focusing on the goal of Shanghai's innovation-driven development and the special mission to carry out in-depth planning and scientific research on major institutional reform issues. Layout, propose initiatives and policies. The third is to reflect the practical results, adhere to the demand orientation, problem orientation and effect orientation, clarify the key tasks, major tasks and important policies of the reform of the science and technology system, highlight the guiding and operational, and ensure the current round of science and technology system with more pragmatic and effective measures. The reforms have come to fruition.
Expand the autonomy of institutions and encourage innovation of all types of enterprises
Luo Dajin, deputy director of the Municipal Science and Technology Commission, introduced that in July last year, the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Deepening Project Evaluation, Talent Evaluation, and Organizational Evaluation Reform." According to the requirements of the leadership of the Shanghai Municipal Committee, the Municipal Science and Technology Commission and the relevant departments took the opportunity of the Central Committee to deepen the reform of the "three assessments" of scientific research, and focused on strengthening the ability of innovation and strategy. Based on in-depth research, the "25 Articles" of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform were formulated. Initiate holistic reforms in the system and mechanism, and fully stimulate the vitality of all kinds of innovative subjects, especially the majority of scientific researchers. Researcher Shi Qian, director of the Shanghai Institute of Science, believes that this document focuses on issues and demand orientation and has made a series of inclusive policy breakthroughs.
In the reform of scientific research system in universities, research institutes and medical and health institutions, the “Article 25” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform proposes to further expand the autonomy of these three types of units in scientific research activities. “Based on the mission of the organization, the establishment of innovation performance as the core evaluation mechanism combining the medium and long-term comprehensive evaluation with the annual spot check evaluation, the evaluation results are an important basis for matters such as budget, performance salary, and assessment of leading cadres. Chang Jing, director of the Policy Research Office of the Shanghai Institute of Science, said that for a long time, domestic scientific research institutions have less autonomy in selecting people, researching projects, and handling results. To this end, Shanghai will implement the management of the charter, further clarify the functional positioning, establish a medium- and long-term comprehensive evaluation mechanism with innovation performance as the core, and stimulate the vitality of institutions and talents.
For enterprises, the “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform proposed “Encouraging private technology enterprises to undertake government scientific research projects and innovation platform construction”; “Investing in state-owned enterprises in technological innovation and R&D institutions, R&D and transformation functional platform construction, etc. 'As the same as profit' in the performance appraisal. Chang Jing said that in order to play the role of various enterprises in the construction of science and technology centers, it is essential to reduce institutional transaction costs, especially in creating a level playing field, and loosening the enterprises in the evaluation and evaluation orientation.
For the new R&D institutions, Shanghai Science and Technology Reform “25 Articles” encourages social forces to participate, and will give equal treatment to its scientific research institutions in terms of project declaration, title evaluation, and personnel training, as well as inclusive policies such as post-subsidy and tax incentives. For important new R&D institutions, the government supports them through orientation and merit entrustment.
Multiple “packages” increase the income of researchers
the “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform have sent a number of benefit to the majority of scientific researchers, while “unbundling” of the management team of various departments,
Article 9 "Implementation of a knowledge-oriented income distribution mechanism" proposes to "establish a normal growth mechanism for the total performance of public institutions and increase the income level of scientific research personnel", and stipulate "the labor costs for scientific research personnel in competitive scientific research projects, The performance expenditure in indirect expenses, the technical rewards, technology consulting, technical services and other activities of the technology contract, the rewards and rewards of the activities, the performance of scientific and technological achievements in the conversion of rewards and expenditures, are not included in the total performance of the public institutions. Zhu Chunkui, a professor at Fudan University and director of the Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation and Public Management Research Center, explained that the total performance pay of a unit is controlled. "There is more for you, less for others." The “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform clearly stipulates that the rewards for “four technology” services (technical development, technology transfer, technical consultation and technical services) are not included in the total performance salary, which can effectively increase the income of scientific researchers.
In terms of the management of scientific research project funds, the “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform pointed out that for the labor service fees and equipment procurement issues that are of great concern, it is stipulated that “the total cost of equipment and labor costs of the newly unit price of more than 500,000 yuan will be adjusted in the direct cost of competitive scientific research projects. In addition, the budget adjustment authority is all delegated to the project (subject) undertaking unit. Under the premise of sound internal control and no breakthrough in labor service, the unit undertaking the financial research project can independently determine the labor service payment standard for scientific research projects. Zhu Chunkui said that for a long time, the management of scientific research funds in China has the disadvantage of “Fixed assets values more” to a certain extent. The proportion of expenditures allowed for personnel expenses in research funds is low, and there is a limitation on labor costs in the reporting and review of project funds. These regulations are out of touch with the actual needs of scientific research, and it is difficult to truly reflect the intellectual input of researchers. The policy breakthroughs made by Shanghai will make researchers more dignified and better motivate their work.
Increase the sense of honor to technology transfer service personnel
In order to promote the transfer of scientific and technological achievements, in addition to stimulating scientific research personnel, it is also necessary to increase the sense of acquisition of technology transfer service personnel. The “Article 25” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform proposed that in order to strengthen the construction of technology transfer systems in universities and research institutes, it is possible to extract no less than 10% of the net income from the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, and to use for the capacity building of technical transfer professional institutions and personnel rewards. Shi Qian said that the “22 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Innovation Center have stipulated that “the ratio of the income from the scientific and technological achievements of universities and research institutes to the R&D team is not less than 70%”, but in addition to the R&D team, the transfer of scientific and technological achievements is also needed. The hard work of technology transfer service personnel, this group should also be stimulated by the conversion income.
At the same time, for the evaluation of technology transfer service talents, a classification evaluation different from scientific research talents should be implemented. To this end, the “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform require “establishing technical transfer professional positions and providing promotion channels for technology transfer talents”.
In terms of promoting the transfer of scientific and technological achievements, the breakthroughs include: piloting the abolition of the assets assessment of scientific and technological achievements, filing management procedures, establishing a state-owned technology intangible assets investment supervision mechanism in line with the transformation of scientific and technological achievements; institutions with independent legal personality Leadership, as a major accomplisher of scientific and technological achievements or an important contribution to the transformation of results, can be rewarded with cash, equity or capital contribution ratio.
Support foreign institutions to integrate into Shanghai's innovation system
Shanghai is China's most internationalized city. How to give full play to this advantage in the process of building a science and technology center? The “25 Articles” of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform pointed out that it is necessary to “establish a multi-level and multi-type international cooperation network”: support local institutions and scientists to participate in global scientific and technological innovation cooperation, and jointly establish joint laboratories and research and development bases with countries along the “Belt and Road”. Support overseas R&D institutions and scientists to jointly declare the city's science and technology plan projects with Shanghai institutions. The document also pointed out that it is necessary to “support foreign-funded institutions to carry out scientific and technological innovation activities in Shanghai”: support foreign-invested enterprises to set up laboratories, R&D centers, innovation centers, enterprise technology centers and post-doctoral research stations, and encourage foreign-invested R&D centers to transform and upgrade into global R&D centers. The foreign-funded global R&D center and the R&D center with independent legal person status, which play a key role in the global allocation of innovation resources, give the same regional policy support to multinational corporations; support foreign-funded institutions to participate in the R&D public service platform, and create space for the city. Support foreign-invested enterprises to undertake government research projects.
In order to allow scientific research personnel including "multi-tasked" to participate in academic exchanges and cooperation activities, the "25 articles" of Shanghai Science and Technology Reform proposed that: scientific research personnel need to go abroad temporarily, "the number of visits, the number of groups, the number of days outside and the management requirements of documents, etc. Need to be arranged according to the actual situation; for academic exchanges and cooperation, if you need to go abroad temporarily, you can give greater convenience.
At the press conference of the municipal government held yesterday, Vice Mayor Wu Qing introduced the latest "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of the System of Science and Technology and Strengthening the Sources of Technology Innovation Centers". On March 5th, Shanghai held a conference to promote the reform of the deepening of science and technology system, and made a comprehensive mobilization and system deployment for the implementation of the “25 Articles” of Shanghai Technology Reform.
This article was published in the March 21, 2019 "Liberation Daily"