Li Wan: Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements: Key to Improving National Innovation System Efficiency

       In the modern world, major countries and regions have regarded the transformation of scientific and technological achievements as an important measure to achieve sustainable development. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that we are current at the historical moment of new scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation and full of opportunities and challenges. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements will be the top priority in the strategic response.
  The rich connotation and strategic significance of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements
  The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is a science-finance concept formed and developed in the context of the reform of China's scientific financial system, so-called technology transfer or technology commercialization globally.  Originally based on the innovative "linear paradigm", it is believed that scientific and technological achievements are formed, matured and introduced into the economic system along the chain of "research-development-pilot-industrialization".
  Based on the changes of the innovation paradigm, people's understanding and practice of the transformation of technological achievements have basically gone through three phases.
  Firstly, the linear paradigm. The policy concept can be called “Social Contract Theory”. It is believed that fine research findings are based on efficient funds, encouragements on interest-oriented free exploration and other supports on the scientific research system. Industries will find suitable scientific and technological achievements on their own. “Research comes from resources." Then, the transformation of technical results is a passive, one-way behavior.
  The second phase is the system paradigm. In order to relieve the “unlimited” requirement on financial resources brought about by the linear paradigm, “Resource Sarcity Theory “is invented. Scientific research activities are divided into different priorities and then configured. Research adheres to the "demand-oriented" – focused on the real needs of the country and industry - "Research serve industry." The transformation of scientific and technological achievements has become a two-way interactive and systematic advancement process.
  The third phase is the ecological paradigm. In order to solve the problems of excessive scientific research and excessive short-sighted behavior, the innovation policy of “ecological optimization theory” has been paid attention to. Various innovative entities (species) carry out research and innovation activities with “vision-oriented” through complex interactive networks. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements into the common behavior of the entire innovation ecosystem has become the strategic engine of national development - "Research is the engine".
  From the linear paradigm to the ecological paradigm, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements from a probable isolated incident has gradually become a mechanized joint action, which is both an inevitable requirement for economic and social development and a direct result of the effective action of the government. The institutionalization of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements has very obvious strategic significance for countries and regions.
  Promote high-quality development. We will combine large-scale scientific research with large-scale production to create new products, industries and jobs. The rise of silicon valley in the United States is the fine combination of investment from the Department of Defense and technology transfer from Stanford University. HP, Fairchild, Intel, AMD, Genentech, Google, etc., all have numerous connections with Stanford university.
  Reach a high-intensity strategy. Facing competition for power and national strategy, many countries and regions took the civil-military integration ways to promote scientific and technological innovation, Europe's "Eureka Program" “Galileo program” "2020 horizon ", "Manhattan project" "Apollo program" "Star Wars program”, such as the human genome project in the United States, which  all contains both the scientific research, direct application and transformation. Internet, touch screen, satellite communication, etc., were invented and transformed in the arms race and national power rivalry.
  Promote high-level scientific research. Through transformation, new topics and higher requirements are put forward for universities and research institutions. The Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT) has produced more than 80 Nobel Prize winners and established a technology transfer system including TLO (office of technology licensing), which has a profound impact on highway 128 and the innovation ecology of Boston.
  New problems in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in China
  In recent years, our country carry out the innovation driven development strategy, steadily push forward the implementation of "promote the conversion of scientific and technological achievements", " further promote the implementation of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements transfer opinions and action plan for promoting transformation of scientific and technological achievements transfer" . In the comprehensive reform pilot area innovation, innovative provinces and cities, the independent innovation demonstration zone, technological achievements transfer demonstration area, the method of increasing knowledge value orientation in the allocation of incentive system to promote the transfer of technological achievements transformation, achieved good results. From colleges and universities to research institutes, from functional innovation platform to science and technology services, from a technical license to a shareholder,  from absences venture to study union, transformation of scientific and technological achievements of institutions, carrier, methods, channels, such as increasingly rich, inspires the vigorous development of innovative undertaking and inspired for interest and motivation in high technology enterprises.
  However, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements still faces some problems and challenges, mainly including the following aspects.
  Effect measurement. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is not a simple linear process, and it is difficult to quantify its effectiveness with direct and simplified indicators. The key is that the transformation of scientific and technological achievements has not been regarded as an important process in the innovation ecosystem.
  Core subjects. Enterprises are the compositors of scientific and technological achievements and the implementers of application scenarios, so they are also the subjects of the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. The innovation ability of enterprises is generally weak, which is one of the important bottlenecks restricting the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in China.
  Key elements. Talent is the key factor in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. At present, due to the relatively strict and alienated management mode for employees of different systems, it is difficult to realize the free and orderly transformation of people's identity, which hinders the benign flow of talents between industry, universities and research institutes and affects the smooth transformation of scientific and technological achievements.
  Disposition of rights. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is accompanied by the increase, decrease and transfer of rights, which brings about considerable wealth effect and gives rise to a series of problems such as ownership, division and conferment of property rights. This needs to be grasped with contemporary economy system thinking and crack.
  Some thoughts on promoting the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in China
  It is of far-reaching strategic significance and important practical significance to promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements in China.
  Grasp the new scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation of the major opportunities. In the next 10-20 years, innovation and breakthroughs in new science and technology fields represented by AI, biology and nano-technology will emerge in an endless stream. Driven by the strategic vision of taking the lead in forming the future industry, the transformation of breakthrough original achievements should be coordinated with the enhancement of the policy source capacity of scientific and technological innovation.
  Promote innovation and entrepreneurship in science and technology to accelerate the shift from old drivers to new ones. Technological entrepreneurship is an important channel and carrier for the transformation of achievements. Many developed countries, including the United States, have realized the transformation of old and new industries, new and old jobs, and old and new drivers of growth by encouraging entrepreneurship and creating leading companies leading the technological wave.
  It is conducive to accelerating the modernization of the governance system and capacity for scientific and technological innovation. The transformation of scientific and technological achievements is an important channel for the modernization of the economic system. Centering on the improvement of the efficiency of the national innovation system, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements can lead to the formation and development of entrepreneurial universities, mission-oriented research institutes and innovative enterprises, and lay a foundation for the improvement of modern university system, modern research institutes system and modern property right system.
  To this end, we need to take a long-term view and further deepen the reform of the science and technology system.
  Promotes the realization of the value of scientific research results through vision orientation. Encourage colleges and universities to carry out scientific prospects and technology foresight, focus on economic and social development vision, optimize discipline layout and capacity building, and fully combine research topics with strategic needs, cutting-edge exploration and leading applications. Strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, enhance intellectual capital, strengthen the education and training system, and consolidate human capital, and advocate and form a fashion that is innovated and innovated in the whole society.
  Multi-pronged measures to promote the enhancement of enterprise innovation capabilities. Explore inclusive policies such as tax credits, innovation income tax cuts, and basic research tax cuts to encourage companies to increase R&D investment and enhance innovation capabilities. Financial funds are appropriately tilted to SMEs, based on supply chain and innovation chain, support cooperative research and open innovation, and promote the joint development of large and medium-sized enterprises. Adopting demand-side policies such as innovative government procurement and ordering, the scientific and technological achievements can be smoothly transformed in the ecosystem of industry, academia and research with enterprises as the core.
  We should break down barriers and promote the free and orderly flow of talent. We will effectively implement the policy of increasing the autonomy of institutions of higher learning and explore a dynamic management mechanism for their implementation. Encourage institutions to explore the system of academic leave, so that researchers can work in enterprises during 2-3 years of academic leave, to achieve a seamless connection between production, learning and research. The dual employment system is explored and implemented in scientific research institutions and innovation function platforms to enable talents to realize flexible identity transformation.
  Institutional supply promotes the overall optimization of wealth effect. Under the premise of trust and with good faith as the bottom line, various forms of achievement transformation, such as first investment and later award, will be included in the coverage of deferred tax and tax base preference. We will give full play to the leverage, demonstration and back-up effects of government funds, encourage the innovative application of fintech in the field of science, technology and finance, and provide strategic capital support for the transformation of achievements. We will support institutions of higher learning to refine their quantitative standards and include service personnel who have made o
  Practices at home and abroad have fully proved that the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is the core content of the combination of science and technology and economy, an important link of innovation-driven development, and the key to improve the efficiency of the national innovation system. Only by forming world-class regulations and systems for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, can top scientific and technological innovation talents be gathered and cultivated, and original achievements and future industries that lead an era be created, so that China will gradually become an important science center and innovation highland in the world.
  The experience of United States in achieving innovation-driven development
  The historical background and social environment of United States' comprehensive shift to innovation-driven development have similarities with current historical stages of China, which can be used for reference. The following characteristics can be found by analyzing the environment before and after the introduction of the United States "Bayu Act".
  First, emerging technologies breakthroughs and kinetic energy accelerated conversion. In the 1970s and 1980s, the fourth and fifth technical and economic waves were superimposed, and many technologies such as information and biology were developing rapidly. Genentech broke through the bottleneck of DNA recombination technology, and accelerated the commercialization of computers and software. Microsoft (1975) and Apple (1976) were established.
  Second, innovation-driven efficiency is prioritized, and technology transfer promotes development. Early American governments feared that it would be unfair to transfer the fruits of government support to the private sector. But when the economy is driven by innovation, efficiency must come first, and the ability of institutions to translate these results will bring more benefits to more people.
  Third, the regulatory system in response to change, and constantly improve the incentive protection. In June 1980, the Supreme Court ruled in chakrabarti's case that living microorganisms could be patented, and biotechnology transformation flourished. In the field of IT, such measures as layout-registration of integrated circuits and software copyright exclusivity have been implemented. In 1982, the U.S. congress approved the establishment of the federal circuit court of appeals (CAFC), which specialized in patent cases. All these have greatly encouraged people to engage in high-tech, high-risk and high-return innovation and entrepreneurship activities.
  Fourth, the supply of factors is abundant and effective, and the innovation environment is continuously optimized. In the middle and late 1970s, the us began to explore the supply-side structural reform. The capital gains tax was reduced from 49% to 28%, allowing pension to invest venture capital, and a large amount of money poured into scientific and technological innovation. In October 1980, genentech successfully went public and created a historic rise, creating a new era of innovation-driven development.
  Since then, the United States has continuously promulgated and timely revised a series of laws and plans to promote technology transfer, so as to promote the continuous development of industry-friendly technology transfer. Beginning in the mid to late 1990s, the United States entered a new round of economic prosperity cycle and continuously widened the gap with other developed countries.
  The author is Li Wan, deputy director and researcher of Shanghai institute for Science of Science. This article was published in the A6 edition of Study Times on November 07, 2018